Amygdala and hippocampus are symptomatogenic zones for central apneic seizures
Lacuey N, Zonjy B, Londono L, et al. (2017) Amygdala and hippocampus are symptomatogenic zones for central apneic seizures. Neurology. 2017 Feb 14;88(7):701-705.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify limbic sites of respiratory control in the human brain, and by extension, the symptomatogenic zone for central apnea. METHODS: We used direct stimulation of anatomically, precisely placed stereotactic EEG electrodes to analyze breathing responses. We prospectively studied 3 patients who were explored with stereotactically implanted depth electrodes. The amygdala and hippocampus, as well as extralimbic sites (orbitofrontal, temporal tip, and temporal neocortex), were investigated. RESULTS: Individual stimulation of the amygdala and hippocampal head consistently elicited central apnea in the expiratory phase, as did exquisitely focal hippocampal seizures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that hippocampus and amygdala are limbic breathing control sites in humans, as well as the symptomatogenic zone for central apneic seizures.
In three patients implanted with depth electrodes, stimulation of the amygdala caused apnea. Hippocampal seizures also caused apnea. These findings are considered in light of other studies investigating amygdala in SUDEP at Zhang et al., 1986.