Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentration and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after severe head injury in humans
Clark RS, Carcillo JA, Kochanek PM, et al. (1997) Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentration and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after severe head injury in humans. Neurosurgery. 1997 Dec;41(6):1284-92.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Uncoupling of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxidative metabolism is observed after severe head injury in comatose patients; however, the mechanism(s) involved remain undefined. Adenosine can produce cerebral vasodilation and reduce neuronal activity and is a possible mediator of uncoupling. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine concentrations would be increased during uncoupling of CBF and oxidative metabolism, defined as a narrow arterio-jugular venous oxygen difference [D(a-v)O2 4 vol%] after head injury. METHODS: Adenosine concentrations were measured using fluorescent-based high-pressure liquid chromatography in 67 CSF samples obtained from 13 comatose (Glasgow Coma Scale score 7) adult patients who sustained a severe closed head injury. At the time each sample was obtained, CBF was measured by the xenon-133 method, and blood samples were obtained for determination of D(a-v)O2. RESULTS: CSF adenosine concentration was negatively associated with D(a-v)O2 (P < 0.05, generalized multivariate linear regression model). In addition, CSF adenosine concentration was increased when D(a-v)O2 was 4 versus > 4 vol% (38.5 [3.2-306.3] versus 14.0 [2.7-795.5] nmol/L, respectively, median [range]; P < 0.025) and in patients who died versus survivors (40.1 [6.9-306.3] versus 12.9 [2.7-795.5] nmol/L, respectively, median [range]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The association between increased CSF adenosine concentration and a reduction in global cross-brain extraction of oxygen supports a regulatory role for adenosine in the complex balance between CBF and oxidative and nonoxidative metabolism severe head injury in humans.
Keywords: Adenosine, Cerebral blood flow, Cerebral metabolism, Cerebrospinal fluid, Head injury, Oxidative metabolism