Respiratory and vascular responses in monkeys from temporal pole, insula, orbital surface and cingulate gyrus; a preliminary report
Kaada BR, Pribram KH, and Epstein JA (1949) Respiratory and vascular responses in monkeys from temporal pole, insula, orbital surface and cingulate gyrus; a preliminary report. J Neurophysiol 12:5 347–56.
Introduction: Attention has recently been focused on the finding of vascular and respiratory responses resulting from stimulation of the cortex of the posterior orbital surface (4,8,12, 17) and the anterior limbic region (10,19,22) of the frontal lobe of monkey. Physiological neuronography has shown reciprocal and restricted firing between the posterior orbital surface and the cortex of the temporal pole (3). Also, cytoarchiterctural studies in the macaque have indicated a close resemblance between these two areas (5). The finding of respiratory responses from stimulation of the anterior insula (20) provided a link between the frontal and temporal lobe. Because of these relationships it was decided to stimulate the cortex of the temporal pole and to study vascular and respiratory responses. In view of the positive results obtained from stimulation of the temporal pole in the present experiments, and the similarity of these responses from all of the above-mentioned regions, an investigation of the possible continuity of theses responsive areas was undertaken,
- Stimulation of insular cortex in monkeys caused respiratory arrest during either inspiratory or expiratory phases. Respiration resumed after approximately 30 s even in the presence of continued cortical stimulation. Effects on blood pressure were also identified, and the effects were shown to be mediated by direct connections to subcortical regions. See Radna and MacLean who stimulated the vagus nerve and saw neuronal responses within the amgydala, insula, and hippocampus.