Rostral brain regions contributing to respiratory control
Harper RM, Rector D, Poe G, Frysinger RC, Kristensen M, and Gozel D(1996) Rostral brain regions contributing to respiratory control. Prog Brain Res 107: 145–56.
Publisher Summary: Respiratory muscles are used for a variety of behaviors in addition to the primary function of air exchange. These behaviors require input from a number of brain structures onto motorneuron pools for muscles mediating respiration, and include descending influences from limbic, periaqueductal grey, and cortical regions. Respiratory output neurons are also influenced by blood pressure variations; cardiovascular activity is, in turn, mediated by descending limbic projections, as well as by local activity on the ventral medullary surface. The rostral ventral medullary surface shows a marked regional activation to blood pressure lowering, and a profound decline in activity with blood pressure elevation over widespread areas, suggesting local influences on enhanced breathing during depressor challenges and suppressed breathing during pressor stimuli. The influence of limbic projections on breathing patterns may be especially pronounced during transient events, such as startle or affective activities. Dorsal hippocampal regions show pronounced regional activation changes during momentary respiratory events, such as sighs and apnea, with onset of activity preceding resumption of breathing.